Saturday, 14 October 2017

Next week 16th to 23rd October 2017

NEXT WEEKS EVENTS

 11th to 17th September 2017

The following is an extract from Bristol Geology Calendar

More details can be found in the Calendar and on the web sites of the relevant Society or organisation.


All Week (except Monday)

10:00
 Bristol City Museum - Pliosaurus!
WhenSun, 13 August, 10:00 – 17:00
WhereBristol Museum & Art Gallery (map)
DescriptionTravel back in time 150 million years and dive into Bristol’s Jurassic seas. We dare you to come face to face with one very special creature – an eight metre long Pliosaurus called Doris. She’s the ultimate predator and you’ll be awestruck as you touch her skin, listen to her heartbeat and smell her disgusting breath! Then travel forward to the present day to find out more about this amazing beast. See her actual fossil – one of the world’s most complete – and play games to discover more about her life and death. All the family can have fun investigating the science that helped us bring her back to life. Ideal for children aged 3-11 years old. Discovered in Westbury, Wiltshire in 1994, our internationally significant specimen is the world’s only example of a new species of pliosaur – Pliosaurus carpenteri – and will be on public display for the first time. Pliosaurs are so big that it took ten years to prepare all the fossils that were found. Bristol Museum & Art Gallery opening times: Tue-Sun: 10am-5pm Closed Mondays except Bank Holiday Mondays and Mondays during Bristol school holidays: 10am-5pm

ROCKTOBER

The annual celebration of Mendip geology is underway. There are far too many individual events to put in the Calendar so here is the flyer which gives lots of information and access to booking details. You can read it here or download and print it out yourself. Click on the next line to download.

  
Monday

Teme Valley Geological Society Lecture - Mountain Building
WhenMon, 16 October, 10:00 – 11:00
WhereMartley Memorial Hall B4197 by Sports Ground (map)
Description Mountain Building, with Paul Gannon Contact Janet 01886 821061 for correct time

Tuesday

Geol Soc Western - Lecture
WhenTue, 17 October, 18:00 – 20:00
WhereThe Hub, Aztec West (map)
DescriptionJames Stockall, Network Rail Managing Victorian Earthwork Assets for Modern Demands "18:00 to 18:30 - networking and refreshments 18:30 to 19:30 - Lecture 19:30 - Questions"

SMFS Evening Meeting
WhenTue, 17 October, 19:30 – 22:00
WhereFriends’ Meeting House, Ordnance Road, Southampton, SO15 2AZ (map)
Description“Heavy Spar” presentation by Gary Morse. Members’ Display Table: Baryte.

Wednesday



Thursday

Thornbury Geology Group meeting
WhenThu, 19 October, 19:30 – 20:30
Description Thornbury Geology Group, The Chantry, Thornbury, 7.30pm, contact 01454 416882 The group is is an offshoot of Thornbury and District Museum and we welcome new members. Previous geological knowledge can be helpful but is not necessary as members are very willing to share their own knowledge with anyone keen to learn more about Earth Science. The group is loosely following a pre-recorded lecture series which is supplemented by use of other material and geological specimens. On occasions a guest speaker will talk on their specialist topic. Costs are met from attending members' monthly contributions and the group does not have membership subscriptions or a committee

Friday



Saturday



Sunday




Friday, 13 October 2017

Map art

Geophysical Maps as Art

We all know that maps can be beautiful. This article shows some particularly beautiful ones. All the maps are fascinating. I had a couple of favourites.


This one is particularly good, if not strictly a map.



You can get this video full screen if you access it from this link.

This map takes false colour (actually hyperspectral imaging) to a new level - and its useful!

How to run a geothermal field

Geothermal power - Good but not easy!

This article describes the geology and engineering needed to exploit the geothermal field at Rotorua in New Zealand in a sustainable way. I had no idea of the complications and difficulties involved. It is a long article but well worth reading.


Wednesday, 11 October 2017

Two courses

2 Courses on Offer

Nick Chidlaw is offering two courses to run in mid November. He gives full details below.

-----------------------------------------------------------


I am proposing to run the above in mid November, if there is sufficient interest and availability to make the courses viable. I have run both of them / versions of them several times in the past, and I have been gratified that attendees have indicated they enjoyed the proceedings and learned a lot. 

These courses are located in south-west and north-west Gloucestershire. Some people who live a substantial distance from this area may be interested in both, and the courses are therefore being offered on the same weekend to allow attending to be more workable; both courses are independent of each other, so either or both courses can be enrolled on, depending on people’s particular interests and availability. As the courses are being offered at this particular time of year, it will be necessary to run them an hour earlier than most other field courses I run, to avoid darkness early in the evenings. These November courses would have meeting times of 8.30 – 8.45 am, registration and introduction 8.45 – 9.00 am, and course running times of 9.00 am – 4.00 pm. 
Each course has a fee of £27.00 per person.
If you /anybody else you know would like to attend one or both of these courses, please forward a cheque payable to me to:

Dr N. Chidlaw,
8, Silver Street,
Dursley,
Glos.
GL11 4ND.

Please provide me with your postal address – I will then be able to send you your course handout in good time before the course/courses run.
The deadline for the minimum number (10) of enrolments for each course is Wednesday 1st November (just over 2 weeks before the courses are proposed to run). Maximum number of attendees for each course 30. If the minimum number of enrolments is reached by this deadline, the arrangements will continue; if not, the courses will be cancelled, and fees received will be returned to those who sent them in, soon after. If the courses reach viability by 1st November, enrolments can continue up to 1 week (Friday 10th November) before the courses are due to run. 
Please see details of the two field courses below. I hope this proposal is of interest to you and to hear from you soon.
Regards,
NICK CHIDLAW.

-----------------------------------------------------------

STUDY THE NEW RED DESERT


Part of the cliff of the River Leadon near the village of Redmarley D’Abitot, exposing fluviatile deposits of the Bromsgrove Sandstone (Early/Middle Triassic)

Date: Saturday 18th November 9.00 am – 4.00 pm
This field course is located in north-west Gloucestershire; it visits a number of exposures in Permian and Triassic continental strata deposited under an arid tropical climate, part of the ‘New Red Sandstone Supergroup’. The course takes attendees up through the succession from oldest to youngest, examining key changes in the sedimentary environment over time. These deposits include upland screes and dune sandstones, river sandstones and gravels, and lake deposits; you’ll see evidence for sporadic marine incursions into the desert, which became increasingly common over time. No prior geological knowledge or of the study area would be assumed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

THE EBB AND FLOOD OF AN ANCIENT SEA

A view down part of the exposures at Tintern Quarry on the Wye gorge; the strata seen in this image are mostly ‘peritidal’ deposits containing stromatolites, mudflake breccias, oncolites and palaeokarst


Date: Sunday 19th November 9.00 – 4.00 pm
This course is located in south-west Gloucestershire on the gorge of the River Wye c. 3 miles N of Chepstow; extensive exposures would be examined in a large disused quarry and along track cuttings in adjacent woodland throughout the day. This is known as ‘Tintern Quarry’, and is located by Tidenham Chase. The village of Tintern is c. 2 miles to the NW. 
An examination of the earth’s geological record indicates the distribution of land and sea has been far from constant. Movements of the crust have caused land areas to rise above and fall below the sea, and global sea levels have varied with the waxing and waning of polar ice sheets, and uplift of ocean spreading ridges when particularly active. On this course, you will be shown how to interpret an episode of marine retreat and replacement by rivers, then a subsequent re-advance by the sea, in the Early Carboniferous strata exposed. No prior knowledge of geology or the study area would be assumed.

-----------------------------------------------------------

For each course, a handout outlining the day’s programme, including location sketch maps, optional reading list, geological history, written or graphic logs detailing the rocks to be studied, will be forwarded in advance of the course to those enrolled.

Please note that for each course you will need to:
·         Arrange your own transport (and accommodation such as B&B if you live beyond commuting distance – tutor can advise)
·         Bring your own packed lunch, and any refreshments (e.g. flask of coffee, fruit juice, mineral water etc.).
·         Wear strong footwear with good tread and ankle support, and have waterproof clothing with you in case weather is poor.
·         Wear a hard hat when below overhead rock faces (we will often be examining natural cliffs / quarry faces). If you do not possess a hard hat, let me know in advance and I will provide you with one for the day.
You would be insured against accident for the duration of each course.





Wednesday, 20 September 2017

Next 3 weeks 25th September to 15th October 2017

NEXT 3 WEEKS EVENTS

 25th September to 15th October 2017
The following is an extract from Bristol Geology Calendar

More details can be found in the Calendar and on the web sites of the relevant Society or organisation.


All Week (except Monday)

10:00
 Bristol City Museum - Pliosaurus!
WhenSun, 13 August, 10:00 – 17:00
WhereBristol Museum & Art Gallery (map)
DescriptionTravel back in time 150 million years and dive into Bristol’s Jurassic seas. We dare you to come face to face with one very special creature – an eight metre long Pliosaurus called Doris. She’s the ultimate predator and you’ll be awestruck as you touch her skin, listen to her heartbeat and smell her disgusting breath! Then travel forward to the present day to find out more about this amazing beast. See her actual fossil – one of the world’s most complete – and play games to discover more about her life and death. All the family can have fun investigating the science that helped us bring her back to life. Ideal for children aged 3-11 years old. Discovered in Westbury, Wiltshire in 1994, our internationally significant specimen is the world’s only example of a new species of pliosaur – Pliosaurus carpenteri – and will be on public display for the first time. Pliosaurs are so big that it took ten years to prepare all the fossils that were found. Bristol Museum & Art Gallery opening times: Tue-Sun: 10am-5pm Closed Mondays except Bank Holiday Mondays and Mondays during Bristol school holidays: 10am-5pm

Monday 25th September


Dave Green - The Devonian Period
WhenMon, 25 September, 19:30 – 21:30
WhereWynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester (map)
DescriptionThe Devonian Period 419 to 358 million years ago, this period (whose existence was hotly disputed by Sedgwick and Murchison in the 1820s and 30s) saw the amalgamation of two parts of Britain (but strangely not including Devon!), the emergence of widespread land vegetation, closely followed by insects and terrestrial tetrapods. A major extinction, of disputed origin, wiped out a large proportion of life towards the end of the period. Half the world consisted of a vast ocean (Panthalassa), which, like the modern Pacific, was gradually being destroyed by subduction, in favour of the Rheic and PalaeoTethyian Oceans. Starts Mon 18th September for 10 weeks (not 16th or 23rd Oct), until 4th December Held at Wynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester from 7.30-9.30pm on Mondays. Cost £70 (including tea, coffee etc at breaktime!). Contact Dave Green, Joys Green Farm, Forge Hill, Lydbrook, Glos GL17 9QU Tel 01594 860858 davegeostudies@gmail.com

Tuesday



Wednesday



Thursday



Friday



Saturday



Sunday




All Week (except Monday)

10:00
 Bristol City Museum - Pliosaurus!
WhenSun, 13 August, 10:00 – 17:00
WhereBristol Museum & Art Gallery (map)
DescriptionTravel back in time 150 million years and dive into Bristol’s Jurassic seas. We dare you to come face to face with one very special creature – an eight metre long Pliosaurus called Doris. She’s the ultimate predator and you’ll be awestruck as you touch her skin, listen to her heartbeat and smell her disgusting breath! Then travel forward to the present day to find out more about this amazing beast. See her actual fossil – one of the world’s most complete – and play games to discover more about her life and death. All the family can have fun investigating the science that helped us bring her back to life. Ideal for children aged 3-11 years old. Discovered in Westbury, Wiltshire in 1994, our internationally significant specimen is the world’s only example of a new species of pliosaur – Pliosaurus carpenteri – and will be on public display for the first time. Pliosaurs are so big that it took ten years to prepare all the fossils that were found. Bristol Museum & Art Gallery opening times: Tue-Sun: 10am-5pm Closed Mondays except Bank Holiday Mondays and Mondays during Bristol school holidays: 10am-5pm

Monday 2nd October


Dave Green - The Devonian Period
WhenMon, 25 September, 19:30 – 21:30
WhereWynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester (map)
DescriptionThe Devonian Period 419 to 358 million years ago, this period (whose existence was hotly disputed by Sedgwick and Murchison in the 1820s and 30s) saw the amalgamation of two parts of Britain (but strangely not including Devon!), the emergence of widespread land vegetation, closely followed by insects and terrestrial tetrapods. A major extinction, of disputed origin, wiped out a large proportion of life towards the end of the period. Half the world consisted of a vast ocean (Panthalassa), which, like the modern Pacific, was gradually being destroyed by subduction, in favour of the Rheic and PalaeoTethyian Oceans. Starts Mon 18th September for 10 weeks (not 16th or 23rd Oct), until 4th December Held at Wynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester from 7.30-9.30pm on Mondays. Cost £70 (including tea, coffee etc at breaktime!). Contact Dave Green, Joys Green Farm, Forge Hill, Lydbrook, Glos GL17 9QU Tel 01594 860858 davegeostudies@gmail.com

Tuesday

OU Geol Soc Wessex Excursion - Jersey
When3 – 6 Oct 2017
WhereJersey (map)
DescriptionLeaders:- Dr Ralph Nichols, Robert Waterhouse Contact Kathy Stott kathympython2014@gmail.com

Wednesday

OU Geol Soc Wessex Excursion - Jersey
When3 – 6 Oct 2017
WhereJersey (map)
DescriptionLeaders:- Dr Ralph Nichols, Robert Waterhouse Contact Kathy Stott kathympython2014@gmail.com


South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group Talk
WhenWed, 4 October, 19:30 – 20:30
WhereMiners Institute (aka Coalpit Heath Village Hall), 214 Badmington Rd, Coalpit Heath, BS36 2QB (map)
DescriptionTalk 3 Contact Roger Gosling 01454 883607

Thursday

OU Geol Soc Wessex Excursion - Jersey
When3 – 6 Oct 2017
WhereJersey (map)
DescriptionLeaders:- Dr Ralph Nichols, Robert Waterhouse Contact Kathy Stott kathympython2014@gmail.com

Bath Geol Soc Lecture - How did the largest animals ever fly?
WhenThu, 5 October, 19:15 – 20:45
WhereBath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution, 16 Queen Square, Bath (map)
DescriptionHow did the largest animals ever fly? Biomechanics and mass estimation in pterosaurs Liz Martin-Silverstone, Final Year PhD Student, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to take to the skies, and the largest animals ever to achieve powered flight. The largest had wingspans rivalling small airplanes at 10-11m. The biggest birds today are nowhere near this size, with albatross wingspans of 3-4 m., and extinct birds may have reached up to 8 m. in size. Why were pterosaurs able to reach this great size? How were they able to fly? Exactly how heavy were these animals? With unique adaptations, pterosaurs were able to dominate the sky for over 150 million years.


Friday

OU Geol Soc Wessex Excursion - Jersey
When3 – 6 Oct 2017
WhereJersey (map)
DescriptionLeaders:- Dr Ralph Nichols, Robert Waterhouse Contact Kathy Stott kathympython2014@gmail.com

Saturday

The Rock Exchange
When7 – 8 Oct 2017
WhereBakewell, Derbyshire. (map)


Bath Geol Soc Excursion - Ogmore and Southerndown
WhenSaturday, 7 Oct 2017
WhereMeet at the car park at the south end of Ogmore-by-Sea village (SS 869 734) and later move to the car park at Dunraven Bay. There is plenty of parking available but with pay-and-display fees at Ogmore and a toll at Southerndown. (map)
DescriptionOgmore and Southerndown Dr. Geraint Owen, Swansea University Mesozoic rocks unconformably overlie Upper Palaeozoic rocks in the Vale of Glamorgan. The rock units and their relationships are superbly exposed along the spectacular Glamorgan Heritage Coast. Highlights include richly fossiliferous Carboniferous Limestone and Blue Lias (early Jurassic); marginal facies of the Mesozoic that developed close to upstanding areas of Carboniferous Limestone and are preserved adjacent to unconformities in the form of wadi breccias and rocky shoreline deposits; a variety of styles of unconformity; and impressive folds and faults. Meet at the car park at the south end of Ogmore-by-Sea village (SS 869 734) and later move to the car park at Dunraven Bay. There is plenty of parking available but with pay-and-display fees at Ogmore and a toll at Southerndown. Strong footwear and packed lunch will be needed.


Dursley Walking Festival - Geology and Scenery of the Dursley Outliers
WhenSat, 7 October, 10:00 – 15:00
WhereCam Peak Car Park. GL11 5HH will get you close. Grid Ref ST767993 (map)
DescriptionWalk commencing 10.00 am Geology and Scenery of the Dursley Outliers. Duration/distance: 5 Hours 5 Miles Start point/grid ref: Cam Peak Car Park. GL11 5HH will get you close. Grid Ref ST767993 Brief description: Starting from Cam Peak car park we will explore the Dursley outliers on footpaths and tracks There will be 3 relatively steep climbs of between 60 and 100 metres. Sturdy, ankle-supporting footwear with soles that have good grip is recommended for the steep slopes. The walk will stop at the pub in Uley for lunch, but participants are very welcome to bring their own packed lunch to picnic on the green. It is recommended that everyone should bring a drink with them. There will be numerous stops during the walk depending on questions/interest and these will involve looking at landscape and /or rocks. Booking not required, just turn up. Dogs allowed?: Well behaved dogs on a short lead welcome. Leader/organisation: Dave Green davegeostudies@gmail.com 01594 860858 or 07980 239991 on day.

Sunday


The Rock Exchange
When7 – 8 Oct 2017
WhereBakewell, Derbyshire. (map)


All Week (except Monday)

10:00
 Bristol City Museum - Pliosaurus!
WhenSun, 13 August, 10:00 – 17:00
WhereBristol Museum & Art Gallery (map)
DescriptionTravel back in time 150 million years and dive into Bristol’s Jurassic seas. We dare you to come face to face with one very special creature – an eight metre long Pliosaurus called Doris. She’s the ultimate predator and you’ll be awestruck as you touch her skin, listen to her heartbeat and smell her disgusting breath! Then travel forward to the present day to find out more about this amazing beast. See her actual fossil – one of the world’s most complete – and play games to discover more about her life and death. All the family can have fun investigating the science that helped us bring her back to life. Ideal for children aged 3-11 years old. Discovered in Westbury, Wiltshire in 1994, our internationally significant specimen is the world’s only example of a new species of pliosaur – Pliosaurus carpenteri – and will be on public display for the first time. Pliosaurs are so big that it took ten years to prepare all the fossils that were found. Bristol Museum & Art Gallery opening times: Tue-Sun: 10am-5pm Closed Mondays except Bank Holiday Mondays and Mondays during Bristol school holidays: 10am-5pm

Monday 9th October


Dave Green - The Devonian Period
WhenMon, 9 October, 19:30 – 21:30
WhereWynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester (map)
DescriptionThe Devonian Period 419 to 358 million years ago, this period (whose existence was hotly disputed by Sedgwick and Murchison in the 1820s and 30s) saw the amalgamation of two parts of Britain (but strangely not including Devon!), the emergence of widespread land vegetation, closely followed by insects and terrestrial tetrapods. A major extinction, of disputed origin, wiped out a large proportion of life towards the end of the period. Half the world consisted of a vast ocean (Panthalassa), which, like the modern Pacific, was gradually being destroyed by subduction, in favour of the Rheic and PalaeoTethyian Oceans. Starts Mon 18th September for 10 weeks (not 16th or 23rd Oct), until 4th December Held at Wynstones School, Stroud Road, Whaddon, Gloucester from 7.30-9.30pm on Mondays. Cost £70 (including tea, coffee etc at breaktime!). Contact Dave Green, Joys Green Farm, Forge Hill, Lydbrook, Glos GL17 9QU Tel 01594 860858 davegeostudies@gmail.com

Tuesday


WEGA Lecture - Dr. Heather Buss (Bristol University)
WhenTue, 10 October, 19:30 – 21:00
WhereEarth Sciences Lecture Theatre, Wills Memorial Building, University of Bristol. (map)
DescriptionCreating the critical zone: dissolving, fracturing, and eating rocks by Dr. Heather Buss, Bristol University The critical zone is the region of terrestrial Earth extending from the treetops to where rock begins to weather. It's critical because it provides many essentials that we need to survive on this planet - energy, nutrients, food, groundwater; it also mediates the release of toxins to the biosphere, controls water runoff and infiltration, affects the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and generates dust and sediments. The creation of the critical zone from solid rock is a complex but fascinating set of interlinked processes of chemical reactions, physical transport, fracturing, and metabolism. The feedbacks amongst these very different processes determine many of the characteristics of the critical zone, such as the shape of it, the depth of it, how fast it evolves, and the fertility of it. Because the critical zone is so critical, it's essential that we are able to preserve (or restore) its functions in the face of global and local environmental change. To do that, we need to understand exactly how these feedbacks work so that we can make accurate predictions of the consequences of environmental change as well as of our interventions. In this talk, I will discuss how these different processes are interlinked with a case study of spheroidal weathering in a tropical granitic rock, with extension to other lithologies and climate zones globally.

Wednesday

Geol Soc Western - Lecture
WhenTue, 17 October, 18:00 – 20:00
WhereThe Hub, Aztec West (map)
DescriptionJames Stockall, Network Rail Managing Victorian Earthwork Assets for Modern Demands "18:00 to 18:30 - networking and refreshments 18:30 to 19:30 - Lecture 19:30 - Questions"


HYDROCK WILLIAM SMITH LECTURE
WhenWed, 11 October, 19:00 – 20:00
WhereThe Great Hall Wills Memorial Building University of Bristol School of Earth Sciences Queens Road BS8 1RJ Bristol United Kingdom (map)
Description Hydrock William Smith Lecture 2017 Following the success of the William Smith Bicentenary Lecture Series in October 2015, the University of Bristol School of Earth Sciences invites you to attend the inaugural Hydrock William Smith Lecture, a new series of annual public lectures on contemporary earth science topics sponsored by award-winning, Bristol-based engineering consultancy Hydrock (www.hydrock.com). The 2017 Hydrock William Smith Lecture will be: The Fingerprints of Sea Level Change in a Warming World Professor Jerry X. Mitrovica (Harvard University) Sea level changes are a particularly dramatic consequence of global warming and estimates of the average rise in sea level over the past decade are routinely reported in the media. However, such estimates obscure the fact that observed sea level changes vary dramatically around the globe. This lecture will describe the sources of this variability and focus on the unique patterns – or fingerprints – of sea level change that follow the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. In particular, sea level will actually fall within about 2000 km of a melting ice sheet and rise by increasing amounts at great distance. Thus, counterintuitive as it may seem, Bristolians should be far more concerned about the fate of the distant Antarctic Ice Sheet than the future of their neighbour, the ice sheet that now covers Greenland. Tickets are available free of charge from Eventbrite at by going to the web address below. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/hydrock-william-smith-lecture-tickets-35787398071?ref=enivtefor001&invite=MTI1MTEzMDMvZ3JhZW1lQGNodXJjaGFyZC5jb20vMA%3D%3D&utm_source=eb_email&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=inviteformalv2&ref=enivtefor001&utm_term=attend

Thursday



Friday

Cheltenham MGS Lecture - Crystal Caves of Chipping Sodbury
WhenFriday, 13 Oct 2017
WhereShurdington at The Century Hall (map)
DescriptionDr Neville Hollingworth Crystal Caves of Chipping Sodbury


Saturday

SWGA Field Trip - Mumbles and the Clyne Valley
WhenSaturday, 14 Oct 2017
WhereTo be confirmed (map)
DescriptionMumbles and the Clyne Valley, Leaders: Geraint Owen and Hazel Trenbirth.

Sunday


OU Geol Soc Wessex - Site conservation
WhenSunday, 15 Oct 2017
WhereUpwey Cutting Weymouth (map)
DescriptionRIGS Site Conservation, Upwey Cutting, Weymouth Leader:- Alan Holiday Contact Jeremy Cranmer, wessexdaytrips@ougs.org, tel. 01305 267133

OUGS Severnside Excursion
WhenSunday, 15 Oct 2017
DescriptionEvent: Abergavenny Leader: Dilys Harlow Location: South Wales Date: October 15th 2017 (Sunday) Type: Day Trip Summary: A visit to Gilwern Hill and Clydach Gorge Contact #1: Jan Ashton-Jones [janaj1009@gmail.com] Booking Form: Please contact the organiser of this event for further information. Itinerary and Risk Assessment: Please contact the organiser of this event for the Itinerary and Risk Assessment.